In this day and age, it is not very difficult to build a building on the ruins, but there are many obstacles to rebuilding faith on the ruins of the human heart. But Buddhists say that as long as great wishes are made, then the good wishes of all sentient beings will be fulfilled.
Luyuan Temple, Shengzhou, Shaoxing, Zhejiang Province, which was founded in the second year of Song Yuanjia of the Southern Dynasty (AD 425), is located in the northwest of Liantang Village, Changle Town, south of Xibai Mountain, the scenic “First Peak of Shengzhou”. It has a history of 1596 years.
The Northern and Southern dynasties was the first and most exciting part of the development of Buddhism in China. In the Song, Qi, Liang and Chen periods of the Southern Dynasty, due to the opposition between the south and the north, the ruling groups competed for power and interests with each other, the wars continued, the regime changed frequently, and taxes, corvee and military service became heavier and heavier. The long-term separation and war between the North and the South made people realize the impermanence and shortness of life, so they tried to pursue inner peace in religion. Buddhism is a belief highly respected by the northern and southern regimes from top to bottom social. Whether it is the suffering of the working people, or the ruling class, all hope to gain spiritual support with the help of Buddhism. As a result, Buddhism developed rapidly in the south, with Buddhist temples everywhere and thousands of monks and nuns. “南朝四百八十寺，多少樓臺煙雨中” Du Mu, a famous poet of the Tang Dynasty, used such verses to sum up the picture of the prosperity of Buddhism at that time!
Mr. Ren Jiyu, professor of philosophy at Peking University and the first director of the Institute of World Religion of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, pointed out that the Sixteen Kingdoms of the Eastern Jin Dynasty and the Northern and Southern dynasties were the most influential period of national harmony in China. During the Wei, Jin, Southern and Northern dynasties, Buddhism played a positive role in the unity and harmony of all ethnic groups, and in the cultural exchange and integration between the Han nationality and the ethnic minorities.
It was against this background that the eminent monk of Tiantai Zong built a temple in Xibai Mountain and built Luyuan Temple, a treasure temple that became famous in the south of China.
The famous temple of the thousand years is famous in the south China
According to historical records, there are four famous Luyuan temples in China. Among them, Luyuan Temple in Shengzhou as the beginning, built in the Southern Dynasty Song Yuanjia two years (AD 425), has a history of 1596 years. Since then, Luyuan Temple in Xiangcheng, Henan Province, built in AD 505. Luyuan Temple in Jiaxing, Zhejiang Province in 998, and Luyuan Temple in Yuanan, Hubei Province in 1225. The Luyuan Temple in Shengzhou was built during the reign of Liu Yilong, Emperor Wen of the Song Dynasty. Liu Yilong was originally the third son of Liu Yu, Emperor Wu of the Song Dynasty. He came to power after ministers Xu Yizhi, Tan Daoji, Xie Zhi and others launched a coup and abolished the Shao Emperor. After he ascended the throne, he vigorously advocated Buddhism, built Buddhist temples, Tianzhu Temple, gratitude Temple and so on, all of which were extremely magnificent and magnificent.
Shengzhou, which was established in the Qin and Han dynasties, is called “Shengxian”. It has a history of more than 2100 years. It was named Shengxian in the Northern Song Dynasty. Shengxian was led by the ancient Huiji (provincial region) during the six dynasties. Huiji’s Buddhism originated very early, and it is said that Anqing came here at the end of the Han Dynasty. An Qing, the word Shigao, is the prince of the rest country (the ancient country of western Asia). He is smart and studious, knows astronomy and geography, and respects Buddhist precepts, reading and knowing Buddhist scriptures. After the king died, An Qing succeeded to the throne, but he was not happy. After the expiration of filial piety, he relinquished the throne to his uncle and became a monk. Then he traveled to various places and carried forward enlightenment. In the early years of Emperor Hengdi of the Eastern Han Dynasty (reigned from 147 to 167 AD), he came to the Han Dynasty and began to teach sutras and translate Buddhist sutras. He once translated “Anbang Shouyi Sutra”, “Yin Shouyi Sutra” and so on. The famous monks Zhu Qian (Word Fashen), Zhi Dun (Word Daolin), Yu Fa Lan and Zhu Fa Chong in the Eastern Jin and Southern dynasties all lived in seclusion. As a result, the scenic Mangshan has also become a gathering place of Buddhist temples. The Chronicles of Landscape Records says: “the strange and deep repetition of the mountains are all concentrated in the west. In the west, it is called Taibai Mountain, Xiaobai Mountain, Jun Cui Shan, Tuyun Hanjing. ” Xibai Mountain, known as Taibai Mountain in ancient times, is located in the west of Shengzhou, bordering Zhuji and Dongyang in the west. It is the second main peak of Huiji Mountain, 1096 meters above sea level, and is the birthplace of Huan Creek. The territory of continuous mountains, layers of verdant, forest gully ancient road vertical and horizontal, but also Baishan peak, Baiyujian two alpine wetlands, the natural ecology is extremely beautiful. The fairy of Dover Road in Xibai Mountain has been in constant contact with celebrities and virtues since the time of the three Kingdoms.
According to the Book of Gui Lu, written in the Southern Song Dynasty, which was written in the seventh year of Ning Zong Jiading (1214), Luyuan Temple is divided into Shangluyuan Temple and Xialuyuan Temple, both of which are located at the southern foot of Xibai Mountain. Xiluyuan Temple was built in the second year of Yuanjia of the Southern Dynasty Liu Song Dynasty, the time name was “Lingjiu Temple”, and the name was renamed “Xialuyuan Temple” in the first year of Zhiping in the Northern Song Dynasty. Shangluyuan Temple was built in the seventh year of Yuanjia of the Liu Song Dynasty in the Southern Dynasty. It was built by Yao Shenggu and was renamed “Shangluyuan Temple” in the Northern Song Dynasty. The scenery of the upper and lower Luyuan Temple is unique, surrounded by mountains on three sides, with waterfalls on its back, Qingtan under it, running water into the temple, corridors and bridges connected. The temple is surrounded by ancient trees, towering into the clouds, there are hidden pavilions to climb the sky, a look at the mountains, and Yuhong Pavilion considerable waterfalls, witness the beautiful scenery, even if there are folk fetters, but also disappear. The literati who came to the temple to present the Buddha were impressed by the beauty of Luyuan Temple and wrote poems about it.
People in the Song Dynasty wrote a large number of poems, “Xialuyuan Temple”:
Lu Tianji of the Song Dynasty also wrote a poem entitled “Xialuyuan Temple”:
Huang Bi, a native of the Ming Dynasty, wrote a poem:
In Jingding Central of the Southern Song Dynasty (AD 1260-1264), Xialuyuan Temple produced about two hundred mu of fields, lands and mountains. During the next five hundred years, monks maintained the monastery with the production of monasteries. During the Ming and Qing dynasties, it developed to its peak. According to records, until the beginning of the 20th century, the scale of Luyuan Temple was still quite large, with three entrances from the mountain gate to the main hall. The pillars were all surrounded by ancient trees, with 10 Buddha statues, more than 100 real estate and 18 wells. For a long time, Luyuan Temple has been one of the scenic spots for Buddha rites in the south of the Yangtze River, and the incense is exuberant.
The Holy Land was brutally attacked by soldiers
During the War of China-Japan, when the Japanese army occupied Shengxian County, there was a local civilian armed force, the captain of which was called “Xianggao”, which was called “Xianggao”. The ministry once destroyed the main Japanese roads, blew up bridges, bypassed the Japanese sentinels, and killed the Japanese soldiers.
On October 13, 1943, more than a dozen Japanese aggressors stationed in Shengcheng harassed and plundered the areas of Xiaoli, Central Mansion, and Puqiao. At this time, two soldiers under Xianggao were dressed as peasants, carrying baskets of groceries on their shoulders and letters and bullets hidden underneath. They were returning to Xixiang from Dongxiang in the city and arrived at Chen Hou Temple when they were suddenly stopped by two Japanese soldiers and waved to stop the inspection. As soon as the Japanese soldiers leaned over and reached out to touch the baskets, the two soldiers pulled out their pistols and hit them. One of the Japanese soldiers fell down, and the other fled, was shot again and shot in the right arm. Because of this, the Japanese aggressors stationed in Japan swore revenge and threatened to crack down on the ministry. At this time, more than 100 people were stationed in Luyuan Temple and Dutang Village in the southeast of the temple.
On the morning of the eighth day of the eleventh lunar month, the Japanese and Huang Abao’s puppet troops surrounded Luyuan Temple. At the foot of Xibai Mountain, which is high in the mountains, the soldiers of Xiangbu were evacuated to the mountain behind the temple in advance. The Japanese army dared not go up the mountain to search. When they saw that there was a temple with the same name as the Luyuan Temple in Kyoto, they were even more ashamed and muttered, “there is a famous temple in Kyoto, and ** is a bad breed. How can you tolerate this temple?” Many kinds of anger came up together and fired incendiary bombs with machine guns three times, setting the Luyuan Temple, a thousand-year-old temple of the Southern Dynasty, on fire. In the 1950s and 1960s, Mr. Feng Nong, deputy magistrate of Shengxian County and a Democrat, wrote a poem lamenting:
Japanese Buddhism was first introduced from China through Korea. There is also a Luyuan Temple in the north district of Kyoto, Japan, but it was built 972 years later than the Luyuan Temple in Shengzhou. At the end of World War II, the allies counterattacked Japan, and the US military planned to bomb Japan. Liang Sicheng, a Chinese architect, tried every means to contact the United States in Chongqing, called on the United States to give up bombing the Japanese cities of Nara and Kyoto, and provided the United States with a list and map of cultural relics to be protected in Japan and China’s war zones, marking the coordinates of ancient architectural relics in detail, so that American bombers could avoid destructive damage to these cultural relics. Thanks to Liang Sicheng’s suggestion and the efforts of all parties, Kyoto in Japan was saved from being bombed, so that today’s people can still visit the ancient building of Luyuan Temple in Kyoto.
Toshio Fukuyama, an authority on ancient Japanese architecture, said gratefully: “Mr. Liang Sicheng is a great benefactor of Japan. It was he who proposed to the United States to protect Nara and Kyoto during World War II that our ancient capital was preserved from indiscriminate bombing.” We will never forget him. “
The outrage of the Japanese army burning down the Luyuan Temple, an ancient Chinese temple, is in sharp contrast to Mr. Liang Sicheng’s cross-border protection of Japanese cultural relics and ancient buildings.
“the mountains and rivers are in a foreign land, the wind and the moon are on the same day”, which is a phrase that Master Jianzhen quite appreciates. More than 1200 years later, Liang Sicheng’s righteous act is undoubtedly the best interpretation of this phrase.
Protect all sentient beings and vow to rebuild
Luyuan Temple was destroyed by war. it is the hope of many people to rebuild Luyuan Temple, increase its old system and restore its glory. More than 40 years after the destruction of the temple, that is, in 1984, several scholars from the United States and Canada who studied the history of Buddhism in the Northern and Southern dynasties of China made a special trip to the ruins of Luyuan Temple. However, more than 70 years later, the ruins of Luyuan Temple are still devastated.
At the end of 2010, a monk from Beijing, Master Shang Tong Xia Guo, came to the land of Luyuan Temple and listened to the local believers describe the tragic history of the burning of Luyuan Temple by the Japanese, and a strong sense of patriotism arisen. The Master Tongguo, who grew up under the red flag, had indescribable grief over the invasion of the country by great powers and Japanese aggressors in modern history. The Master always insisted that as a Chinese, he should have pride and pride and make continuous self-improvement. When he saw the barren scene of the ruins of Luyuan Temple, the phrase “remember history and never forget national humiliation” jumped into Master Tongguo’s mind. “in 1943, the country was weak, the Japanese invaders invaded, the mountains and rivers were broken, and the Luyuan Temple, a thousand-year-old temple, was helplessly destroyed. We are now living in a prosperous age, the national luck is prosperous, the people are happy, and the economy is booming. Can’t we rebuild the Luyuan Temple, wash the old shame and promote our national prestige? ” In the absence of any stable financial resources, Master Tong Guo made a grand wish that no matter how bitter and difficult it was, he would spare no effort to rebuild the Luyuan Temple, reinvigorate the treasure pavilion, revive the Dharma feast, renew the Buddha’s wise life, and repay the national kindness.
Hearing Master Tongguo’s decision, many people said with emotion: “the pride, integrity and integrity that can not be seen in ordinary men can be truly felt in Master Tongguo!”
As the Japanese army burned all the cultural relics of Luyuan Temple, the reconstruction work was untraceable and fraught with difficulties. From the beginning of issuing the grand wish, Master Tongguo led the believers to collect relevant historical materials of Luyuan Temple, visited the local elderly, and asked about the old situation of Luyuan Temple. The panoramic picture of Luyuan Temple during the Qing Dynasty was finally found from the historical records such as Li Lu and Yi County Chronicles. With reference to the old system, the reconstruction planning and layout of Luyuan Temple is designed. In line with the construction concept of boutique projects, cultural temples and artistic gardens, every main building and architectural details of Luyuan Temple hope to demonstrate compassionate humanistic care and strong Pure Land flavor. Relying on little by little donations from believers, it was not until 2019 that the first main building of Luyuan Temple, the main Hall, officially broke ground; in May 2021, the main Hall was capped, and the second main building, the Great Mercy Pavilion, was officially built.
On the land of Luyuan Temple, the believers and volunteers of Luyuan Temple are also giving silently. In the course of more than a decade of preparation and construction, the volunteers of Luyuan Temple cleared the ruins, carried bricks and paved the floor, and built houses and sheds, no matter whether it was a scorching sun or a typhoon and torrential rain. When asked what made them so determined, a volunteer smiled and said, “you see, Master has worked so hard, and we disciples should not flinch. After all, we are also Chinese, and we also hope to continue the wise life of the Buddha.” so that more of us have a real faith. “
Shengzhou is actually a county-level city under the jurisdiction of Shaoxing, a famous historical and cultural city.
During Xin Chou’s Dragon Boat Festival, the author visited Lu Xun’s hometown, Lu you’s hometown and Cai Yuanpei’s former residence. When I looked at Mr. Lu Xun’s former residence, a sentence from my husband always haunted me: since ancient times, there have been people who worked hard, those who worked hard, those who prayed for the lives of the people, and those who gave up their lives to seek the law. Although it is equivalent to the so-called “official history” of the genealogy of emperors and generals, it often cannot hide their brilliance, which is the backbone of China.
I think the same is true of Master Tongguo and her disciples! Under the call of patriotism and driven by conscious reason, they resolutely shouldered the heavy burden of rebuilding Luyuan Temple, a thousand-year-old temple, which is not a kind of clank and arrogance.
Mr. Ren Jiyu once stressed: “the spread of Buddhism closely cooperates with Chinese traditional culture, forming the special spiritual outlook of Chinese Buddhism, that is, Sinicized Buddhism.” This kind of Chinese Buddhism, with the exchanges between Chinese culture and friendly neighbors, spread to Korea, Japan, Vietnam and other regions. This kind of Buddhist cultural exchange plays the role of cultural ties of foreign nationalities. “
Rebuilding Luyuan Temple is a kind of patriotic consciousness of monks; rebuilding Luyuan Temple is a practice of carrying forward Chinese excellent traditional culture; rebuilding Luyuan Temple is the embodiment of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation at the tip of the iceberg in Shengzhou.
In the process of the reconstruction of Luyuan Temple, everyone is full of infinite yearning and longing, looking forward to the early reappearance of the magnificent and solemn temple! Hope that the great wish to rebuild the thousand-year-old temple Luyuan Temple will be realized as soon as possible! It is hoped that this ancient temple, which was destroyed by the Japanese war and has been silent for 78 years, will be reborn again! Continue the incense that has haunted us for thousands of years, and spend all the living beings wandering around with life and death!